There are three forms of adverbs: adverb formed by adding -ly to an adjective, adverb that shares an identical word with an adjective, and adverb not derived from an adjective or any other word.
a) Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective:
- He had a sudden heart attack while jogging. (Adjective)
- He suddenly had a heart attack while fogging. (Adverb)
- She had a quick walk to get there on time. (Adjective)
- She walked quickly to get there on time. (Adverb)
(See List 8 - Adverbs for more examples.)
Converting a number of adjectives to adverbs by adding -ly entails removing a letter as shown in the following:
- by adding –ly or –ally to the end of an adjective (quick –quickly, heroic –heroically),
- by adding –ly after removing the last –e from an adjective (comfortable–comfortably, possible–possibly),
- by dropping the last y from an adjective and replacing it with –ily (easy–easily, happy–happily).
b) Adverbs that share identical words with an adjective:
Some examples of adverbs that have the same form as adjectives and have similar meanings are: far, fast, hard, long, right, wrong, straight, tight.
Some adverbs and adjectives share the same word.
Some examples of adverbs that have the same form as adjectives and have similar meanings are: far, fast, hard, long, right, wrong, straight, tight).
- I got a pair of shoes cheap in the sale. (Adverb)
- I got a cheap pair of shoes in the sale. (Adjective)
- The workers operate the new machine easily. (Adverb)
- The workers find the new machine easy to operate. (Adjective)
- We don't live far away from here. (Adverb)
- Where we live isn't far from here. (Adjective)
- She worked quite hard. (Adverb)
- She found the work quite hard. (Adjective)
- She has a brother who lives opposite to her. (Adverb)
- The two brothers live on opposite sides of the city. (Adjective)
- If we exercise regularly, we may live longer. (Adverb)
- If we exercise regularly, we may live a longer life. (Adjective)
- You have written the name wrong. (Adverb)
- You have written the wrong name. (Adjective)
(See List 9 - Adverbs sharing same words as Adjectives for more examples.)
c) There are adverbs not derived from an adjective or any other word. .Adverbs such as as, even, how, never, next, now, rather, so, soon, still, then, too, etc.
- He doesn't even know where the Pacific Ocean is.
- He said he had never been to a circus.
- She has got rather a lot of money to spend at this time of the month.
- She has eaten two big pizzas and is still hungry.
There are many adverbs that do not end in –ly. Adverbs (in bold) coming after verbs do not end in –ly
Adverbs are also formed from other parts of speech such as noun (accident), verb (hurry), adjective (bad) and from present participle (frightening).
- She deleted my file by accident. (Noun)
- She accidentally deleted my file. (Adverb)
- Nick hurried to answer the telephone. (Verb)
- Nick moved hurriedly to answer the telephone. (Adverb)
- Excessive smoking is bad for him. (Adjective)
- His health is badly damaged by excessive smoking. (Adverb)
- He's frightening us with the speed he's driving. (Present participle)
- Frighteningly, there is little we could do with the speed he's driving. (Adverb)