Adjectives have three forms which we can use when we compare two or more nouns: positive, comparative and superlative. The positive form is used when comparing two equal things or persons, and the comparative and superlative forms when comparing two or more unequal nouns.
The positive form
When we use the positive form of adjective to make comparison, we use such expressions: as . . . as; not as . . . as, etc. to compare two equal things or persons.
- My uncle is bald.
- My uncle is as bald as a cue ball.
- His head is big.
- His head is as big as my head.
- His wife-to-be is very charming.
- His ex-wife is not as charming as his wife-to-be.
The comparative form
We use adjectives to describe a noun. We can also use adjectives to compare two nouns in terms of size, length, quality and others. The comparative form is used to compare two unequal persons or things. In using the comparative form of adjective to describe how one person or thing is when compared to another person or thing, we add the letters -er to the end of the adjective words (big – bigger; small – smaller) and the word than after the comparative adjective (longer than, taller than).
- A hen's egg is bigger than a pigeon's egg.
- Our fingers are longer than our toes.
- This basketball player is taller than that footballer.
- She says her pet hen walks faster than her pet duck.
- His head is bigger than my head.
Not all adjectives can end with -er. For some adjectives, we use the word more in front of them (careful – more careful; tired – more tired). When using the word more, we also use the word than to follow the comparative adjective (more careful than; more tired than).
Some words cannot be used as comparative adjectives by adding "-er"
Do not use “more” and “er” together for an adjective when making comparison
More than one comparative adjective may be used to make a comparison
The superlative form
We use the superlative adjective when we compare three or more nouns. It is formed by adding est to the end of the adjective or adding the word most in front of it. The word the has to precede the superlative adjective.
- My great grandfather is the oldest one in the family.
- She has the prettiest face in the whole school.
- He talks the loudest in his circle of friends.
- Bozo is the funniest clown in the circus.
- Your sister is the most talkative person in class.
It is a small chair but the most comfortable chair in the house.
He was the most injured among the victims.
To form a comparative adjective, we look at the number of syllables a regular adjective has. Regardless of the number of syllables, the adjective itself does not change in form when used with more or most.
For adjectives of one syllable, we normally add -er to the end of the comparative adjective (high – higher, weak – weaker) and -est in their superlative forms (highest, weakest).
If an adjective of one syllable ends with an e, just add an r (pale – paler; safe – safer).
If an adjective ends in a consonant, the consonant must be doubled (big – bigger; mad – madder)
Example of an adjective has two syllables: funny has two syllables: fun-ny
If an adjective has two syllables and ends in y, drop the y and add –ier (early – earlier; happy – happier; pretty – prettier).
If an adjective has two syllables and does not end in y, add the word more before the adjective (more handsome, more helpful; more purple).
Example of a three-syllable adjective: beautiful has three syllables: beau-ti-ful
For a word with three or more syllables, use the word more in front of an adjective to form the comparative form and the word most in front of the superlative form.
Some adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms.
The following table shows adjectives that are not regular
|as good as||better than||the best|
|as bad as||worse than||the worst|
|as little as||less than||the least|
|as much as||more than||the most|
|as many as||more than||the most|
|as far as||farther than||the farthest|
|as far as||further than||the furthest|
List 17 - The Comparison of Adjectives shows the comparison of adjectives for most common (and uncommon) words.