The verb ending in –ing can be used as an adjective to modify a noun. 


As an adjective, the verb + ing comes before a noun.


  • We are running short of cooking oil.
  • I have to get another woodworking tool.



Adjectives that end in –ing do one of these things.
(a) The –ing adjective tells us that something is still going on. 


  • What has become of my missing kitten?
  • Some countries are experiencing a dwindling population due to very low birth rates.
  • There are people who doubt the disappearing rain forest contributes to global warming.



(b) The –ing adjective shows how something can affect us.


  • It was a very tiring day at the workplace.
  • It’s amazing that the university student is only 16.
  • That noise he’s making is getting annoying.



The verb + ing adjective can come after the following:


a helping verb

  • It was a disturbing dream I had last night.
  • It is polling day, today.

an adverb

  • The movie was very disappointing.
  • What she said to him was deliberately insulting.

a possessive 

  • We really appreciate your helping to milk the cows.
  • I can't understand his behaving in a strange manner whenever there is a full moon.
  • She has arranged for our going over for a game of mahjong.