Present participles and past participles can act as modifiers of nouns. These participles can in turn be modified by adverbs as the following will show.
A present participle, that is a verb that ends in –ing, can be used to modify nouns. It usually comes before the noun that it modifies. If the present participle is part of a modifying phrase, it comes after the noun that it modifies.
- She got a dancing doll for her birthday.
(The present participle dancing modifies the noun doll.)
- That was her daughter dancing in her room.
(The present participle phrase dancing in her room modifies the noun daughter.)
The reverse is also possible, that is an adverb modifies the present participle with the adverb coming before it.
- My soundly sleeping grandfather will soon get up for his dinner.
- There is a man soundly sleeping on the couch in the doctor's office.
(In both examples, the adverb soundly modifies the present participle sleeping. In the first example, the present participle sleeping modifies and comes before the noun grandfather. The second example shows the present participle modifies and comes after the noun.)
A past participle can be used to modify nouns. It usually comes before the noun that it modifies. But if the past participle is part of a modifying phrase, it comes after the noun that it modifies.
- The beaten home team was booed as soon as the match ended.
(The past participle beaten modifies the noun home team.)
- The three of us got into the boat rented for a fishing trip.
(The past participial phrase rented for a fishing trip modifies the noun boat.)
The reverse is also possible, that is an adverb modifies the past participle with the adverb coming before it.
- His badly swollen leg makes it difficult for him to walk.
- His leg badly swollen from a bite by a snake is quite painful.
(In the first example, the adverb badly modifies the past participle swollen, and it comes before the noun leg that it modifies. In the second example, the past participle modifies and comes after the noun.)