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Lesson 15- GERUNDS and PRESENT PARTICIPLES Print E-mail

( 15)  GERUNDS and PRESENT PARTICIPLES

 

Gerund is a word that functions as a noun. It is derived by adding ‘–ing’ to the end of a verb (jog), e.g. “Jogging is a good way of exercising”.

 

A present participle is formed by adding ‘-ing’ to the verb, as in ‘reading’., e.g. “He may be reading the newspaper now”.

 

A gerund is used:

·        as the subject of the sentence.

Example: Waiting for a bus can take a long time.

·        as the object of a verb.

Example: “Will you stop crying?”

·        as a verbal noun, i.e. as a verb doing the work of a noun.

Example: Her scolding frightened her children.

·        after a verb.

Example: The gate needs repainting.

·        after “busy”.

Example: She is busy cooking for dinner.

·        with a preposition.

Example: We are tired after walking for two hours.

·        after a phrasal verb.

Example: If we carry on working, we can complete it today.

 

A present participle is used:

·        immediately after a subject to which it refers.

Example: People driving in the rain have to drive carefully.

·        after a verb.

Example: He went fishing with his friends.

·        after a noun. It tells us what a person or thing is doing.

Example: She heard them talking about her.

Example: I saw a rock rolling down the hill.

·        as an adjective.

Example: That twinkling star is much brighter than the rest.

·        to show that a person is doing two things at the same time.

Example: He is sitting outside the house, watching people pass by.

·        to form the continuous tense.

Example: He is washing his car.

·        when one action is followed by another.

Example: Walking on the beach, he threw a ball to his friend.

 
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