Catenative verb
A catenative verb is a verb that is followed directly by another verb. The verb that follows is usually in a non-finite form. The second verb that follows a catenative verb can be a to-infinitive, bare infinitive, or present participle (verb+ing) / gerund form. 
 
The second verb is to + infinitive, and, together with all the words that follow, can be described as the direct object of the first verb.

 

Examples:

  • We tried to reach home before it rained.
    (The catenative verb tried is followed by the to-infinitive to reach.)
  • They expect to win this game.
    (The catenative verb expect is followed by the to-infinitive to win. To each home before it rained in the first sentence and to win this game in the second sentence are direct objects of the verbs tried and expect.)  

 

The catenative verb that is followed by a bare infinitive is typically a modal verb such as can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, and ought to.

 

Examples:

  • She could speak five languages.
  • On the first day, the leader told us what we must do.

 

A catenative verb is followed by verb+ing/gerund.

 

Examples:

  • His parents love birdwatching.
  • I always enjoy lying on the beach.

 

Clause
A clause is a group of words including a verb. One clause is a simple sentence.
 
Complement
A complement is an adjective or a noun phrase that follows a linking verb such as be, and it gives more information about the subject. There are adjective complement, object complement, and subject complement. 

 

Compound verb
A compound verb is a combination of two or more verbs that function as a single verb of a single subject of a sentence. The two or more verbs are connected by coordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so (fanboys). A compound verb is used when a subject is doing more than one thing. Using a compound verb  cuts down the number of words used in a sentence and avoids repetition.
 
In each of the following sentences, the subject has more than one verb (in bold) which is called a compound verb.

 

Examples:

  • She said there were ghosts in the kitchen, for she saw them.
  • He punched his younger brother and kicked him on the knee.
  • They neither know nor care what she said about him.
  • support the home team, but bet it will lose.
  • You can come along or stay at home.
  • The team played very well, yet lost the match.
  • She felt insulted by him, so she slapped his face.

 

The types of compound verbs include prepositional verb, phrasal verb, verb with auxiliaries, and single-word verb.

Prepositional verb
A prepositional verb is created with the combination of a verb and a preposition. They must not be separated in a sentence with a word or phrase coming between them.

 

Examples:

  • A tile fell off the roof.
  • The building burned down last month.
  • He bumped into me from behind.

 

Phrasal verb
A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and a word from another part of speech. Together, they form a new verb with a different meaning from that of each of the two words that make up the phrasal verb. 

 

Examples:

  • Our meeting came about by accident.
  • Someone broke into their house while they were away.
  • The bank robbers made off before the police arrived.

 

Verb with auxiliaries
A verb with auxiliaries is typically a main verb and an auxiliary verb or helping verb (am, is, are, was, were, have, has, had, be, been) followed by another verb.

 

Examples:

  • She is lying on the beach.
  • We are preparing for the trip.
  • They will be arriving in an hour’s time.

 

Compound single-word verb
A compound single-word verb is a compound verb of more than one word acting as a single verb. It may be connected by a hyphen, or a combination of two words acting as a one verb.

 

Examples:

  • We cherry-pick the television programs to watch.
  • She used a lot of oil to deep-fry the chicken.
  • She sunbathes every week.
  • They honeymooned in Antarctica.

 

Conditional conjunction
Conditional conjunctions are used to show that something will happen on the condition that something else happens or to describe a hypothetical or unreal situation. This is done by making one clause in a sentence subordinate to or dependent on another clause (subordinate clause / dependent clause) within the same sentence. Such a sentence is referred to as a conditional sentence as it contains a conditional clause.
 
Conditional conjunctions include after, as long as, as soon as, assuming that, because, before, despite, even if, if, if only, in case, in order, now that, provided, providing that, shouldsince, supposing, therefore, unless, until, when, whenever, wherever, whether or not, and yet.
 
Examples of sentences containing conditional conjunctions

 

Examples:

  • As long asyou drink moderately, you won’t get drunk. 
  • If you like to have one, I will buy it for you.
  • You can come along providedyou behave yourself.
  • Shouldyou feel seasick, you could lie in the cabin.
  • Sinceit is quite late, no shops are open.
  • She will not go for dinner with him unlesshe pays for it.