Adjective complement
An adjective complement is a phrase, usually a prepositiional phrase, or a clause, usually a noun clause, that modifies an adjective or provides information to complete the meaning of an adjective phrase. If the complement consists of only one word, it is very likely to be an adjective.



Prepositional phrase as adjective complement

  • She was worried about her sick dog.
  • His girlfriend was quite annoyed by his remarks.

Noun clause as adjective complement

  • Her parents are very happy she is finally married.
  • Both sides are hopeful that a peaceful solution will be fround.

Infinitive phrase as adjective complement

  • She was only too glad to escape from the conversation.
  • The residents are getting ready to protest.


An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that is placed next, usually after, another noun to rename or identify it. 
Complete sentence without appositive: Their history professor is quite absent-minded.
Complete sentence with appositive: Their history professor, Frances, is quite absent-minded.
(By adding the appositive Frances, it renames the professor which can be of help as there may be more than one history professor at the particular place.)
Complete sentence without appositive: Edward Ward is being sought by the police to assist in the investigation.
Complete sentence with appositive: Edward Ward, a completely bald man in early middle age, is being sought by the police to assist in the investigation.
(The appositive in the last example – in bold – identifies the noun Edward Ward by providing more information about him.)
More examples with appositives in bold


  • His pet fish, a goldfish, is a gift from his girlfriend.
  • Alice, Tom’s only sister, has graduated with a degree in taxidermy.
  • A big fat woman with double chins, Ava is trying hard to cut out the foods that are making her fat.
  • We have been going to the nightclub to listen to Anthony, a folk singer confined to a wheelchair.
Aspect of Verb 
All verbs have both tense and aspect. Each tense is subdivided into aspects. The different combinations of tenses and aspects make possible aspects such as continuous (progressive), perfect, and perfect continuous. These aspects tell us whether the actions are continuous, completed, or both continuous and completed.
Since verbs have three tenses (presentpastfuture) and four aspects, their combinations make possible twelve different forms as follow:
Simple aspect: simple present, Simple past,
Simple future Continuous aspect: present continuous, past continuous, future continuous
Perfect aspect: present perfect, past perfect, future perfect

Perfect continuous aspect: present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, future perfect continuous  

Auxiliary verb
An auxiliary verb is a verb that is used with a main verb to form a verb phrase. The auxiliary verb be is used in continuous forms and to form passive verb phrases. The auxiliary verb have is used in perfect tenses. The auxiliary verb do is used mostly in questions and negative clauses. Do is also used to show emphasis.  
Be is an auxiliary verb as well as a main verb. The present tense forms of be are am, is, and are, and the past tense forms are was and were.  As an auxiliary verb, be is used in continuous tenses and passive statements. As a main verb, be may be followed by a complement which is either an adjective or a noun phrase.