A gerund phrase functions like a noun, which can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, or subject complement in a sentence.
- Subject: Riding a camel looks easy to me.
(Riding a camel is a gerund phrase acting as a subject in the sentence.)
- Direct object: He enjoys milking the farmer's cows.
(Milking the farmer's cows is a gerund phrase acting as a direct object in the sentence.)
- Indirect object: She likes baking cakes for her children.
(Baking cakes is a gerund phrase acting as an indirect object in the sentence.)
- Object of preposition: He's thinking of running a seafood restaurant.
(Running a seafood restaurant is a gerund phrase acting as on object of the preposition of in the sentence.)
- Subject complement: Mike's only pastime is cycling along the coastal road.
(Cycling along the coastal road is a gerund phrase acting as a subject complement in the sentence.)
The word “that” is used as a relative pronoun in a sentence. For example, in the sentence “The circus has a clown that makes spectators laugh a lot.” The word “that” is used in place of the “clown” to indicate that it is what makes spectators laugh a lot. “That” is also used in an adjectival form in a sentence: “Show me that photo.” Here, it acts like an adjective such as “big” or “old”, preceding and modifying or describing the noun "photo."